Dime las características de tu proyectos y te diré si es exitoso

Una disertación normal en el ambiente empresarial a nivel tecnológico es porqué una misma aplicación o ERP puede funcionar muy bien en una empresa y en otra organización fracasa rotundamente. ¿Qué características o eventos hacen que un proyecto sea exitoso en un caso y una tragedia en otro?, ¿cuáles son las características que hacen a un proyecto exitoso? En una parte importante de casos no es que el software sea de muy buena o muy mala calidad, son otras variables que se involucran.

A este respecto no hay teorías únicas, ni verdades absolutas, hay mucho de experiencia, de manejo y de gestión, pero sí es posible determinar un conjunto de características comunes que pueden influir en la implantación de un proyecto y por ende, en cómo termina.  Entre estas características podemos encontrar:

1.       El proyecto tiene un valor estratégico para la organización.  Un proyecto no puede ser exitoso si no es valioso para la organización y para el cumplimiento de sus estrategias. En la medida que sea apreciable para la empresa tendrá la atención y recursos necesarios. Por ejemplo, si dentro de la estrategia de una organización no está la movilidad, un proyecto de apps para dispositivos móviles tendrá poca atención. 

2.       La implantación del proyecto genera valor para la organización. Además de ser valioso estratégicamente para la compañía, debe generar un elemento diferenciador a la entidad dentro de su cadena de valor o a nivel de servicio para sus clientes. Por ejemplo, para entidades financieras no tradicionales poder ofrecer a sus clientes finales acceso a cajeros automáticos se convierte en un proyecto que genera valor.

3.       El proyecto permite mejoras sustanciales en eficiencia y optimización de procesos.  Cuando el éxito de un proyecto permite que procesos manuales o susceptibles de errores disminuyan al máximo se convierte en un elemento clave. Por ejemplo, en entidades con uso intensivo de papel, un proyecto de Gestión Documental es clave.

4.       La preparación y definición del alcance de un proyecto. Una característica vital para el éxito de un proyecto es que esté muy bien definido y que sea claro el alcance y el objetivo que se espera de él. Una de las causas recurrentes en problemas en la implantación de proyectos es no tener claro el alcance. Un ejemplo clásico es el proceso de cambio de core en una entidad. Hay que definir muy precisamente las necesidades de la empresa para poder evaluar e implantar un proyecto.

5.       La organización ya tiene una cultura de proyectos. Un proyecto no es fácil de ejecutar, involucra muchas variables y complejidades. Cuando una entidad ya tiene experiencia en proyectos, ya tiene definido como enfrentar las coyunturas  que seguramente se presentan y cuentan con procesos para la mitigación de riesgos.

6.       La gestión de conocimiento al interior del proyecto. Una de las principales características que hacen a un proyecto exitoso, es que todos los procesos de gestión de la transferencia de conocimiento sean muy claros y diáfanos. La transferencia entre los responsables en la empresa y los consultores sobre el funcionamiento del negocio, o la transferencia del conocimiento de los consultores a los miembros del proyecto de cómo funciona el nuevo aplicativo es vital. Por ejemplo, cuando en el equipo del proyecto por parte de la empresa no hay personal con conocimiento y experiencia en el Know-how del negocio, estamos ante un proyecto con serios riesgos de fallar.

7.       El apoyo de la alta y media directiva es vital. Para que un proyecto termine exitósamente es muy importante que las directivas de la empresa (que no necesariamente son los dueños o los gestores del proyecto) apoyen de manera irrestricta al proyecto y al líder que lo está direccionando y coordinando. He visto casos en los cuales el proyecto tiene todo el apoyo y recursos de los dueños, pero el Gerente del Proyecto no es apoyado por la directiva y éste se ve condenado al fracaso.

8.       El equipo de proyecto es trascendental. Entendemos por equipo del proyecto todas las personas que por ambas partes participan en la ejecución del mismo. Los integrantes del equipo deben estar comprometidos con el objetivo y el alcance, tener sentido de pertenencia, estar orgullosos de pertenecer a éste, conocer cómo funciona el negocio, ser flexibles y, sobre todo, funcionar como un equipo. La mayoría de proyectos que fallan lo hacen porque el equipo humano no está sintonizado entre sí y la mayoría de  proyectos que terminan bien lo hacen porque tuvieron un equipo humano que trabajó coordinadamente

Como lo mencione antes, no es una camisa de fuerza, ni son las únicas características que se tienen, es una guía a tener en cuenta cuando comienza un proyecto, es producto de la experiencia directa e indirecta en varios proyectos exitosos y fallidos.

 

Daniel Fernando Cortes G.

Twitter: @danielfernandoc

Linkedin: DanielFernandoCortesG

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69 Respuestas a Dime las características de tu proyectos y te diré si es exitoso

  1. Daisy Jiménez Corder dijo:

    Estimado Fernando: me gustó mucho tu columna, está muy bien planteada y es como si estuviéramos hablando de nuestro proyecto acá y me alegra mucho que podamos poner un “check” a casi todos las características que se mencionan. Yo sólo agregaría y como refuerzo y en algunos casos para mitigar el riesgo de que un punto no esté tan maduro como es el caso de la “Cultura de Proyectos”, el contar con un adecuado “Acompañamiento tanto a nivel de Administración de Proyectos como de Asesoría Legal”. Además y porque yo lo he sentido ampliamente en este proyecto, el hecho de que también el proyecto sea “Estratégico” para el Proveedor elegido.

  2. Simón Moya Jiménez dijo:

    Muy buen artículo, como sugerencia, complementaría el artículo con tres puntos adicionales: Lecciones aprendidas, gestión del riesgo y gestión del cambio, las tres están presentes en todos los proyectos y su ausencia provoca retrasos que en la mayoría de los casos conllevan al fracaso de los proyectos.

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